Stagnant water is water that has been sitting for an extended period of time. Stagnant water, which lacks movement and aeration, becomes an ideal breeding ground for biofilms, which are collections of bacteria or fungi. Stagnant water, if left untreated, can become a breeding ground for dangerous diseases and pathogens such as:
· E. coli
· Mycobacterium nontuberculosis
· Pseudomonas pneumonia
The appearance of lead in pipes supplying potable water can be fatal. Other systems' ability to function properly is jeopardised by metal corrosion, such as boilers, chillers, and cooling towers.
What is the Issues due to stagnant water during pandemic?
Our normal life has been disrupted as a result of the Coronavirus pandemic. This means that places we frequent visit, such as hotels, malls, office buildings, dorms, and so on, may only have sections of the building open or may be completely closed. It may not occur to the average person, but the impact of these closures on HVAC systems cannot be overstated. If the microclimates in these spaces are not controlled, the water used will become stagnant.
Water stagnation can influence all types of HVAC systems and cause varying degrees of damage to capital equipment. Stagnant water causes a unique set of problems in HVAC systems. Not only can corrosion impair their ability to function, but deadly legionella in their water can spread quickly once the system is turned on.
Stagnant water also encourages the growth of biofilms, which can result in microbially induced corrosion, fouling, and a breeding ground for Legionella and other pathogens. Temperatures in closed loops will not stay at their setpoints if boilers or chillers are not running. The disinfectant levels in cooling towers will decrease.
Dangers because of stagnant water
Stagnant water can be dangerous to drink because it serves as a better incubator for many types of bacteria and parasites than running water. Stagnant water can become polluted with human and animal faeces, especially in deserts or other low-rainfall areas. Water stagnation for as little as six days can completely alter the composition of the bacterial community and increase cell count.
Types of stagnant water
• Stagnation of water bodies (stagnation in swamp, lake, lagoon, river, etc.)
• Stagnation of surface and ground waters
• Stagnation of trapped water. Water can be trapped in both man-made objects (discarded cans, plant pots, tyres, dug-outs, roofs, etc.) and natural containers (hollow tree trunks, leaf sheaths, etc.).
Drainage of surface and subsoil water is recommended to avoid ground and surface water stagnation. Because natural soil drainage is less available in areas with a shallow water table, ground water stagnation is more likely.
Ways to reduce stagnant water damages
· Keep hot water hot and cold water cold, this prevents microbial growth, which is most likely in room-temperature water.
· When not in use, HVAC cooling towers should be drained. This prevents corrosion, biofouling, and the proliferation of legionella bacteria.
· To prevent corrosion, boilers should be taken offline after a wet or dry lay-up procedure. Failure to do so may result in oxygen pitting, general corrosion, and iron fouling, as well as higher energy costs and/or premature failure.
· Develop and adhere to water management protocols that include disinfectant level testing and periodic flushing.
· All chemical feeds must be flow-interlocked to prevent chemicals from being fed into "dead water," as concentrated chemicals can corrode piping and equipment. Flow-interlocking also aids in ensuring that the chemical is properly dosed or not dosed under all load conditions.
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